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Agnihotra – Controls Air Pollution

Updated: Aug 8, 2023

Practicing Agnihotra regularly will purify the surrounding environment and nullifies the Nuclear / Air / Water / Soil Pollution to a great extent.


Agnihotra, the simplest form of ‘Yajnya/Homa’ performed in many countries all over the world. Although it’s an ancient fire ritual, it is based on the scientific aspects. It invokes sunrise and sunset timings, when far infrared radiations are

produced from the sun, the burning of cow ghee, dried cow dung, unpolished rice in the typical inverted pyramidal shaped copper pot with the chanting of mantras about sun (Surya) and fire (Agni). It is found that far infrared radiations of sun and

that of Agnihotra resonate to generate a huge amount of vital energy useful for life processes. The fumes and ash of Agnihotra are useful to purify water and air, ameliorate agriculture, reduces the pathogenicity of microorganisms and help to

improve the health of living beings. Performing Agnihotra with right timings and ingredients will create conducive atmosphere in the surrounding for the well-being of life.


Fumes of Agnihotra are of medicinal use, they control pollution of an ambient air. An Agnihotra fume shows antimicrobial properties by killing or decreasing the growth of microbes which resulted in the reduction of microbial load in the surrounding environment.
Fumes of Agnihotra Yagnyas control basic levels of SOx and NOx in the surrounding environment, which are required for the healthy and happy environment for human, plants and other animals. SOx in an ambient air can be reduced during Yagnya and its effects are long lasting. NOx in an ambient air increase below threshold levels, this may be due use of cow dung during Yagnya which acts as a nitrogen source.

Use of specific shape of a copper pot, chanting of mantras, offerings used and activity timings all have a great impact on Agnihotra. Materials used during Agnihotra for burning are oxidized to CO, CO2 and other volatile organic compounds. By the process of

photoelectric effects, there might be the generation of electrons due to infrared or solar rays, which may fall on pot used, at sunrise/sunset timings. Due to these electrons, CO and CO2 may deoxidize and there is a formation of ozone, which may get mixed with ozone layer in the atmosphere. Electrons generated by solar rays and protons generated by the moisture content of organic matter during burning process, may be deoxidized oxides of sulphur and nitrogen, into its nontoxic molecular compounds.


Another possibility of these generated protons and electrons may involve in the process of atmospheric nitrogen fixation in soluble forms like NH3 into the soil. Volatile organic

compounds generated during Yajnya may further subject to the photochemical reactions like decomposition, oxidation or reduction due to UV and solar rays. Hence, generated protons or electrons during Agnihotra heals and purify surrounding

environment by preventing air pollution.


Agnihotra is a bio-energy science mentioned in the Vedic literature which can be described as a process of fumigation. Ingredients used during Agnihotra burned during combustion and evolves many gaseous compounds in an ambient environment. Cow dung contains menthol, indols, ammonia, phenols, formalin, etc. Brown rice contains ethylene and propylene oxides, formaldehyde, acetylene, pro pyolactone, etc. All these compounds get volatilized during burning and help to control air pollution.


Use of cow ghee and pipal wood along with different 324 combinations of Ahuties (offerings of plant and plant derived materials) during Yajnya reduces major air pollutants after burning or fumigation process. Agnihotra (performed along with

the use of dried plant materials) fumes reduces the concentration of oxides of sulphur and nitrogen in the artificially polluted area. Suspended particulate matter (SPM and RSPM) can significantly reduce due to Yajnya performance in an ambient air. Although

concentration of air pollutants not completely reduced its concentrations are within threshold values and they are not to the extent of unhygienic conditions.


Also odor or smell of Yajnya's fumes are acceptable, hence it can be used to purify ambient air. Materials used in Agnihotra are responsible for control of air pollutant in an ambient air. Plant materials burned during Agnihotra produces medicinal fumes which varies chemical composition of surrounding environment. SOx, NOx, SPM and RSPM all reduces and their levels are maintained during Yajnya timings. Combustion gases are responsible for raining during Yajnya and have positive response on atmospheric conditions.


CO2 levels increases during Yajnya process and then they reduced but O2 levels significantly increases due to Yajnya. CO, CO2 and O2 concentrations maintained up to the threshold levels. The total aerosol number and ozone concentrations

have no any significant effect during Yajnya.


Effect of Agnihotra fumes on NO2 level

NO2 in air is collected by scrubbing a known volume of air through an alkaline solution of arsenite. The nitrite ions thus formed is reacted with sulfanilamide and N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine (NEDA) in phosphoric acid to form the colored azo dye, which can be measured on spectrophotometer at 540 nm. The method is standardized statistically by using NaNO2 standards. Standardization is based upon the empirical

observation that 0.74 mole of NaNO2 produces same color as 1 mole of NO2. SO2 can be removed using H2O2.




Calculations for sample before Agnihotra-

1. O.D. at 540 nm = 0.104


2. μg of NO2/ml from graph = 0.1644 μg /ml

3. volume of air sampled

V = (F1+F2)/2 × T × 10-3

Flow rate = 1.5 ml/min

Time of sampling = 2 hr = 120 min

V= (1.5+1.5)/2 × 120 × 10-3

V= 0.18 m3

4. level of NO2

= (μg of NO2/ml × volume of absorbing reagent)/ 0.85 × V

= (0.1644 × 15) / 0.85 ×0.18

= 16.1152 μg /m3

5. NO2 in ppm = level of NO2 × 5.32 × 10-4

= 0.00857 ppm


Calculations for sample after Agnihotra-

1. O.D. at 540 nm = 0.122


2. μg of NO2/ml from graph = 0.1928 μg /ml

3. volume of air sampled

V = (F1+F2)/2 × T × 10-3

Flow rate = 1.5 ml/min

Time of sampling = 2 hr = 120 min

V= (1.5+1.5)/2 × 120 × 10-3

V= 0.18 m3

4. level of NO2

= (μg of NO2/ml × volume of absorbing reagent)/ 0.85 × V

= (0.1928 × 15) / 0.85 ×0.18

= 17.6471 μg /m3

5. NO2 in ppm = level of NO2 × 5.32 × 10-4

= 0.00939 ppm

Results - NO2 level in the surrounding atmosphere is increased from 0.0086 ppm to 0.0094 ppm due to Agnihotra fumes (performed at sunset).

Effect of Agnihotra fumes on SO2 level

SO2 from the air stream is absorbed in a sodium tetra-chloromercurate solution, it forms a stable dichloro sulpho mercurate complex, which then behaves effectively as fixed SO3 in solution. The amount of SO2 is then estimated by the color produced when p-rosailine-hydrochloride and formaldehyde is added in solution, which can be measured on spectrophotometer at 560 nm.



Calculations for sample before Agnihotra-

1. O.D. at 560 nm = 0.203


2. μg of SO2/ml from graph = 0.2589 μg /ml

3. volume of air sampled

V = (F1+F2)/2 × T × 10-3

Flow rate = 1.5 ml/min

Time of sampling = 2 hr = 120 min

V= (1.5+1.5)/2 × 120 × 10-3

V= 0.18 m3

4. SO2 in ppm = (μg of SO2 per ml from graph) / volume of air sampled

= 0.2589 / 0.18

= 1.4381 ppm

5. μg /m3 of SO2 = (ppm of SO2 × 64 ×106 ) / 24470

= 3761.34

6. SO2 (μg /m3 ) at 25 oC and 760 mm(Hg) = μg /m3

of SO2 × volume of absorbing reagent


= 3761.34 × 15

= 5.642 × 104 μg /m3


Calculations for sample after Agnihotra-

1. O.D. at 560 nm = 0.079

2. μg of SO2/ml from graph = 0.1007 μg /ml

3. volume of air sampled

V = (F1+F2)/2 × T × 10-3

Flow rate = 1.5 ml/min

Time of sampling = 4 hr = 120 min

V= (1.5+1.5)/2 × 120 × 10-3

V= 0.18 m3

4. SO2 in ppm = (μg of SO2 per ml from graph) / volume of air sampled

= 0.1007 / 0.18

= 0.5597 ppm

5. μg /m3 of SO2 = (ppm of SO2 × 64 ×106 ) / 24470

= 1463.77

6. SO2 (μg /m3 ) at 25 oC and 760 mm(Hg) = μg /m3 of SO2 × volume of absorbing reagent

= 1463.77 × 15

= 2.1957 × 104μg /m3


Results - SO2 level in atmosphere reduces from 1.44 ppm to 0.56 ppm due to Agnihotra fumes (performed at sunset).


|| Hari OM ||


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